This quantity grew out of the second foreign Symposium on Behavioral and Morphological Asymmetries, which happened in St. Petersburg (Russia) in September 2004 on the St. Petersburg kingdom college less than the patronage of the St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists. The Symposium is the descendant of a satellite tv for pc occasion with an identical identify of the 4th global Congress of Herpetology (December, 2001, Bentota, Sri Lanka). whereas the first Symposium (see targeted factor quantity three for 2002 of the magazine, Laterality) lined in basic terms asymmetries saw in amphibians and reptiles, the second had a broader scope. 3 years handed because the Sri Lanka assembly and there has been sustained and extending curiosity in vertebrate lateralization within the clinical group, specially in decrease vertebrates, or at the least, in nonmammalian versions. This supported not just through the gathering of talks on the Symposium, but additionally through present guides in overseas periodicals. Talks the following have been considerably biased in the direction of the decrease vertebrates and birds, whereas reptiles remained to be studied in additional aspect. vital rationales have been thought of for the Symposium and the amount, that you have in hand. the 1st was once to compile issues and experts representing assorted branches of the rather large box of study of animal asymmetries. The contributions desirous about 3 major matters: (1) improvement of structural and practical asymmetries constituted; (2) evolution and edition; and (3) functionality. Aiming for a broader diversity of subject matters, the Symposium should still exhibit the present standpoint. The expanding variety of participants (twice as many as on the Sri Lanka assembly) supply not less than a wish that it used to be certainly so. We, although, additional invited authors, who even if no longer current on the assembly itself, however may perhaps give a contribution to the booklet to finalize its form. the opposite objective of this quantity is to show Western scientists to japanese ideas concerning laterality, and vice versa. We aimed additionally to assist Russian scientists with restricted assets and entry to the foreign journals the opportunity to post within the Western literature. It looked as if it would us that it is a high quality and completely appropriate procedure, which nonetheless explains many of the unevenness within the caliber and the fashion of the several manuscripts. Taken jointly, those fourteen Chapters, we think, demonstrate quite a few the main attention-grabbing and interesting themes in the large box of animal lateralization, displaying the views of its advancements. faraway from entire, the quantity however is a cutting-edge booklet, which enhances a bulk of contemporary literature on genetics and developmental experiences of asymmetries of the center and different internal organs, interhemispheric specialization in human matters, and fluctuating morphological asymmetry in animals.